It is a diagnostic technique for examining cells taken from different body sites. The intention of the examination is to identify what leads to the disease and its nature. In medical history, the Pap test happens to be one of the successful screening tests in the discipline of cytopathology involving cervical cancer diagnosis. Under the scope of this study, cell samples form the basis for carrying out different techniques like brush cytology(e.g Pap smear), fluid cytology, scrape cytology, imprint, and fine-needle aspiration cytology(FNAC).
Pap smear, most effective way of screening cervical cancer, which has two modalities of sample collection and analysis. The initial technique is known as conventional pap, uses the cervical brush to collect cells and directly spread on to slides. Advanced technique, currently recommended is liquid-based cytology (LBC), having higher sensitivity in the detection of early stages of cervical cancer.
Fine Needle aspiration cytology, commonly abbreviated as FNAC, is a procedural technique performed by a pathologist. Here, the needle is inserted into the lesion, and cells are aspirated by the negative pressure created by the suction of syringe piston and cutting of tissue by to & fro motion of the beveled needle. Thus, any tissue can be taken as cellular fragments and smeared slides prepared to diagnose. While this procedure, either done directly by palpation or through guidance using radiological imaging like USG.
Fluid cytology involves a similar principle except it is centrifuged and sediment smears are prepared.
Actually, the discipline of cytology assists in overcoming the diagnostic challenges with lesser invasive procedures. We have the state of the art laboratory and equipped with the latest means of diagnostic technology to provide service in the following areas:
- Liquid based cytology
- Conventional cytological smears
All the different techniques, are basically done to indentify the etiology by studying the cell specimens through a microscope.